Homes in Kansas are heated by several methods. These range from wood stoves to various types of solar heating. The most common method is a central forced air unit. These are found both as a sole method and sometimes in combination with other methods.
Forced Air Heating and Air Conditioning
Forced Air units have several things in common. Duct work to distribute the conditioned air to various parts of the house; a blower fan, known as an air handler; and a source of hot air and a source of conditioned air.
Traditionally, the warm is created by burning a fossil fuel, either electricity or a gas (natural gas or propane). The cool conditioned air is created with an electric compressor and outside condenser coil with an evaporator coil in the plenum. These relatively common units have been updated in terms of efficiency over the years.
During the past 20 years homes are starting to use one or another type of heat pump to do the work of these units. Moving heat is more efficient than burning a fossil fuel to create heat. All homes have one or more heat pumps; these are known as a refrigerator or freezer.
Instead of converting energy in the form of gas or electricity to heat by burning a fossil fuel, as a furnace does; the heat pump uses electrical energy to move heat. It moves the heat in or out of your home.
Air Source Heat Pumps are the most common heat pumps found in homes today. This can be an efficient way to heat and cool your home. ASHPs are more common south of Wichita than north, since they are not as efficient in cold weather. The other type of heat pump that has been gaining in popularity is the Geothermal Heat Pump. The cost to install a Geothermal system is dropping. Geothermal uses heat from the Ground and is more properly referred to as a Ground Source Heat Pump.
The Geothermal Approach to Heating and Cooling Your Home
Geothermal is the popular name for a Heat Pump using a Ground Source for heat transfer. During times when the air outside your home is cooler than you choose to have your home, this heat pump transfers heat from the ground, below the frost line, into your home. During times when the air outside your home is warmer than you choose to have your home, this heat pump transfers heat from your home, into the ground, below the frost line.
What is the temperature of the ground, below the frost line? It is very close to the average annual temperature of your area. In Wichita, that is about 54° F.
A Ground Source Heat Pump, can be very efficient, because it transfers energy. It does not convert energy from electricity or gas to heat. In the winter, it moves heat from the 55 degree source to warm your house. In the summer it discharges the heat removed from your home into the 55 degree source.
The Traditional Heat Pump Approach
An Air Source Heat Pump transfers heat to and from the air outside your home. During times when the air outside your home is cooler than you choose to have your home, this heat pump transfers heat from the outside air into your home. During times when the air outside your home is warmer than you choose to have your home, this heat pump transfers heat from your home, to the air outside.
The ASHP is an air conditioner with a reversing valve for winter usage. There are some small technical differences. You can use this concept to understand how it works.
This approach works great and yields great efficiency when the temperatures vary outside between a low of 40 and a high of 80. In climates with lower or higher temperatures the ASHP has to work much harder to find heat in 20 degree or lower air outside in the winter to heat your home. These units are usually set up with electrical resistance heating for lower temperatures. This can be expensive. In the summer the ASHP is trying to discharge heat from your home to a much warmer outside, this reduces the efficiency.
These disadvantages cause some people to bypass the ASHP. Others have had bad experiences with some of the early units. They have improved over the last few years and make a strong showing.
This is Part I of a III Part Article. Here is Part II