Category Archives: Air Filters

Indoor Air Quality – Guideline Revision Public Comments Requested

imagesATLANTA – Public input is being sought into a proposed revision of ASHRAE’s residential indoor air quality guideline.

ASHRAE Guideline 24-2008, Ventilation and Indoor Air Quality in Low-Rise Residential Buildings, is the companion guideline to ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 62.2-2007, Ventilation and Acceptable Indoor Air Quality in Low-Rise Residential Buildings.  Guideline 24 provides information on achieving good IAQ that goes beyond the requirements contained in Standard 62.2 by providing explanatory and educational material not included in the code-intended standard.

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Indoor Air Quality Evaluations

The quality of the Indoor Air of our homes and offices is an important part of our health and comfort.

There is not much sense in putting a lot of good insulation into a building if it is:

  • Not Structurally Sound
  • Not Healthy

What types of things can be done to improve the Indoor Air Quality of any home or property?

  1. The immediate environment of the structure must be kept separate from the inside.
  2. The required fresh air that is needed, in every one of our buildings, should be filtered and otherwise treated for comfort and to remove pollutants.
  3. The pollutants that are created during the normal operation of our building must be eliminated, removed, replaced, diluted or neutralized.
  4. Moisture in any form must be controlled , and then removed avoiding any accumulation.
  5. Any and all accumulations of moisture damage or animal infestation must be cleaned up and damaged building components replaced.
  • A Full Indoor Air Quality evaluation must address all of those concerns.
  • Full interior visual inspection
  • Full exterior visual inspection
  • Testing of the building enclosure to ensure the outside stays outside
    • Infrared Evaluation as part of the above testing
  • Inspection of HVAC Duct Work and systems that move air.
  • Combustion Safety Inspection on open combustion appliances
    • Moisture, Carbon Monoxide, N02, SO2 and others
  • Infrared and other testing for moisture accumulations.
  • Sample Collection of suspended and/or deposited material that are potential pollutants or irritants.
    • Examination and Evaluation by a certified Microbiological Laboratory of these samples.

This evaluation is typically completed in two visits to the home or business. Level I Evaluation and Testing is non-destructive and not invasive.

Level II Evaluation and Testing involves invasive inspections. These may be as simple as drilling a few holes for visual inspection or sampling. It may involve removing obviously damaged building material, that requires replacement, for example wet drywall.

Contact The Energy Guy for further information about an Indoor Air Quality Evaluation.

A Healthy Home Part 3 — Well Ventilated

Fresh AirA Healthy Home is well ventilated.  Everyone knows fresh air is important. This should be easy.  Well ventilated in more than just bringing in fresh air. The concepts are certainly easy, the details on the other hand take some thought and planning.  A new home ventilation strategy is fairly straight forward to design and implement. An existing home needs the input from the occupants and good analysis to address the problems. An effective ventilation strategy should address these issues in either new or existing homes.

  • Remove humidity, odors,, or significant problems from specific areas.
  • Remove stale, musty or other objectionable air.
  • Allow the occupants to choose fresh air sources that can be filtered or treated in other ways
  • Allow the occupants to choose to open windows when outside weather is appropriate
  • Allow the occupants to operate a system that can provide the amount of fresh air, to the appropriate places, in adequate amounts when needed
  • Provide fresh air when the outside air creates potential problems, such as Ragweed season or when other allergens are active
  • Provide air movement within the home, without the use of the expensive blower on the furnace or heat pump.
  • Allow minimal use of heating or cooling equipment during the shoulder seasons, when temperature changes are minimal, while keeping the home comfortable.

Billings QuoteHow much fresh air is needed?  Going back to the 1890’s, the number has been pegged at 30 CFM (cubic feet per minute) per person. This number was validated in a number of different studies and with the public health authorities in larger cities, dealing with large apartment buildings and recurring respiratory diseases.  I was pointed to the quote at the left by Allison Bailles. he located the original book on Google Books, page 20.

Beginning in the 1930s, research into changes in building techniques began to show the optimal number was closer to 15 CFM per person.  Some of the changes in construction included the increased use of forced air heating, moving from balloon framing to platform framing, increasing square footage, and the use of insulation in walls and attics. The formula changes from time to time and everyone has an opinion on details. The common point remains, fresh air is needed in every house.

Part of the Ventilation is removing air with a problem. Where is that?  Humidity is found in rooms that use hot water and basements.  Showers, tubs and cooking are the large sources of humidity.  The smells from food preparation and cooking can be very mouthwatering.  When the meal is finished and the refrigerator is full, the lingering smells become odors.  The answer is some spot ventilation in these areas. If your basement has a humidity problem, you can tackle that with a fitted sump pump cover to contain the humidity, and work to eliminate any water seepage.

vent fanSpot ventilation is a window that opens and an exhaust fan. The size of these fans is part of the formula that is specific to each home. The features of the fan are common to all homes.  It must be quiet. Builder grade fans are noisy. Noise in fans is measured in ‘Sones’. The Sone is a linear measurement of noise, compared to the decibels used by OSHA and others which is an exponential measurement.  Linear is better for quiet sounds, and decibels is better for loud noises. Fans should be less than 3 sones, and preferably less than 1 sone.  Reasonably priced fans are available that rate a 0.3 sones. A 1 sone fan is very quiet.

UnknownFans are certified for air flow and noise levels by the Home Ventilation Institute. HVI certification is very common and includes both the Sone rating and CFM rating.  When installing a fan, you must consider the duct losses that will occur in meeting the required air flow.   The rates for bathroom air flow  are 50 CFM, and 100 CFM for a kitchen.  Do not expect to buy a 50 CFM fan for a bathroom and connect it to 6 or 8 feet of duct work, and obtain 50 CFM.  I have measured 30 CFM routinely in these set ups.

Most people understand that various parts of their body are just a part of the whole.  If you start some type of therapy, there may be a side effect. Physical Therapy starts and you end up with some sore muscles, aha!  Side Effect!  Start a therapy for cancer and your hair may fall out, aha! Side Effect!  Your home works the same way.  Each part is just part of the whole. Change something, aha! What is the side effect?

House-System-imgAll of the items in the list above are part of the whole. For an existing home, some specifics of that house may indicate concentration on one or another of those areas.  A home built in the 1920’s will benefit from a different approach then a house built in the 1980’s.

A new home should have the ventilation system that meets the general points above.  The natural ventilation provided when windows and doors are opened, or the mechanical ventilation system that allows filtered and perhaps treated fresh air brought in from specific places and in specific amounts, allow the occupants to make the system work as they need.

 

This post is part of a Series on A Healthy Home

 

 

A Healthy Home

Healthy HomeBuilding a new home, gives the homebuyer an opportunity to build in all the things they want. The floor plan, bedroom arrangement, windows are all important.

Also right up there is a house that is healthy. Everywhere you look, someone is pitching, this is healthy for you.  We have lots of buzz words for healthy.  Organic, whole grain, anti-oxidant, reduced fat, low sugar, wellness, all-natural are but a few. How do you make a house into a healthy home?  It starts with design and a few simple objectives.   Ideally, a healthy home is:

  • Dry
  • Clean
  • Well Ventilated
  • Combustion by-product free
  • Pest Free
  • Chemical Care
  • Comfortable
  • Safe

read beforeIt seems fairly simple.  We want a roof over our head to keep the elements out.  Hot or cold, rain or snow, we don’t want them in our home.  The dry home starts with a well constructed roof.  That keeps the weather related water like rain or snow out. Then the walls, and the foundation.

Clean may be obvious, or not. Well Ventilated and Combustion by-product free, along with pest free, no toxic chemicals, comfortable and safe seem also to be obvious.  There is a saying about the Devil being in the details.  It is certainly that way in building a home. So a few details on these topics that make up a Healthy Home are important.

I will be posting a series based on the Healthy Home. We will take a look at each of the points listed above and what they mean to the home owner.

Part Ia   How Dry is Dry       Bulk Water from Precipitation

Part 1b  How Dry is Dry       Bulk Water From other Sources

Part 1c  How Dry is Dry       Water Vapor

Part II    The Home Starts Out Clean

Part 3    Well Ventilated

Part 4     Free of Combustion Byproducts

Part 5     Pest Free

Part 6     Chemical Care

Private HERS Rated Homes

During 2013, New Home Builders in the US placed a HERS Rating on over 50% of the new homes built. Builders in most large housing markets have found that a HERS Rated Home sells faster than one that is not Rated.

Is the new home builder the only one that can place a rating on a home?  Actually anyone with an interest in the home can have a HERS Rating completed. The process is the same as when the builder completes the process.

Tonight a new home is on the page listing ‘Actual HERS Rated Homes’ .  This home is one the owner chose to have the HERS Rating completed.  It is being built in Derby, and is listed as Sold Projected. This home was planned to be lower than the standard new home. It is projected with an INDEX of 86.  It will come in lower.  The projected HERS process took into consideration the plan and the levels of insulation and equipment the owner and the builder have decided on.

HERS Rated Homes

HERS Rated Homes

The reports also show how much energy will be used in both heating seasons and cooling seasons by this home.  Several recommendations for cost effective improvements were made.  Several were based on simply lowering the annual utility bills of the home.  When the builder gets pricing for these improvements, the home buyer can make a good decision to proceed with that improvement or not.

Several of the additional insulation recommendations fall into this category. Several of these improvements were based on improving the comfort and Indoor air quality of the home. Again, when the builder has prices in hand the home buyer can make good decisions about these health and safety items. These items include improved equipment, and improved mechanical ventilation over the code required fresh air duct into the furnace.

Yes, there is no code adopted and enforced in the Wichita area requiring insulation in a new home. There is a code item that requires fresh air to be brought in. I have yet to see a new home without provision for a dryer and spot ventilation fans in the bathrooms. The fresh air is needed to compensate for these items.  If it is not provided, these fans will cause fresh air to come in where it can, not where you want.

When think of  a Heating and Air contractor, you have seen them referred to as HVAC Contractors.  The V is for Ventilation.

Remember to ask your Builder for the HERS Rating when you look at a new home. If the builder isn’t Rating his homes, you can obtain a HERS Rating for your favorite model.

Carbon Monoxide and Your Garage

I am studying ‘The Residential Ventilation Handbook’ by Paul Raymer. Mr Raymer has worked with residential ventilation, design, consulting, teaching for over 30 years.

I just reached the Chapter on Garages. I’ve known for several years the potential problems with an attached garage. Two years ago, I did some recommended work in my garage because of these issues. I carefully sealed the wall between the garage and the house, and I installed a mechanical ventilation fan.

lawnChemWhy is the attached garage important to the Indoor Air Quality in your home? OK! What is in your garage? Mostly stuff you don’t want in the house. Like fertilizer, bug spray, weed killer, gas for the lawn mower. Cars, and other vehicles are usually there also.

Mr Raymer includes a table of Carbon Monoxide levels and comments or the potential for harm to people. I knew some of these, and others I did not. Carbon Monoxide is a colorless, odorless gas that is a byproduct of burning fossil fuels, like gasoline, natural gas, or propane. Carbon Monoxide (CO) is measured in parts per million (PPM)

Here are some entries from the table:

1-2 PPM Normal from gas range, traffic etc.

9 PPM Maximum Allowable Level for 8 hour period in any 12 month period. EPA and ASHRAE. Normal after using an unvented gas oven.

15 – 20 PPM Impaired performance in time discrimination and shorted time to angina response

30 PPM UL standard that detectors not sound an alarm unless exposure is continuous for 30 days.

35 PPM Maximum allowable outdoor concentration for any one-hour period within a 12 month period. EPA – ASHRAE

50 PPM Maximum allowable 8 hour work exposure (OSHA)

150 PPM UL Listed detectors must sound full alarm between 10 – 50 minutes of exposure.

500 PPM Car started from cold in garage with door open, and allowed to run for two minutes

800 PPM Dizziness, nausea, and convulsions within 45 minutes.

6400 PPM Death in 10 – 15 minutes

70,000 PPM Typical tailpipe exhaust concentrations after cold start during the first minute the engine runs.

NOTE: After running for 17 minutes, these concentrations finally drop to 2 PPM

tailpipeI think the above table is worth serious consideration from every home owner, every father and every mother.

What Types of Buildings Does a HERS Rater Work On?

I had an question last week.  ‘What types of homes can you put a HERS Rating on?”  A second question came along with it, “What types of buildings can you certify as Energy Star?”

These are great questions!  We usually think of homes as being a house in a subdivision or older neighborhood. It usually houses one family.  These are referred to in the trade as ‘Single Family Homes’.  Not everyone lives in one of these.  There are duplexes, four-plexes and all sorts of high rise apartment houses.  These are referred to as ‘Multi-Family Housing’. There are also buildings that have retail shops or other non-residential areas, with living units on the upper floors. These are referred to as ‘Mixed Occupancy’.

A HERS Rating is applied only to residential units. The ‘Home Energy Rating System’ was developed by the Residential Energy Network, commonly called RESNET. This non-profit organization provides guidelines for training, maintains the standards for the HERS Rating process, certifies the software used to IRS Standards, and finally enforces a Quality Assurance Program on all Ratings issued.

There is an organization that is developing a similar set up for commercial structures called COMNET.

The HERS Rating results in a score on the HERS Index. This score can be used by home buyers, realtors, appraisers, and many others in the property sale transaction. This rating is a private transaction usually between a HERS Rater and the property owner. Many HERS Index Scores are specifically used to market a property.  A HERS Rating may be completed for a new or an existing home. Lenders in some cases are requiring HERS Rating.

The HERS standard does not specify any specific products, methods or other requirements. The resulting Index Score reflects different levels of energy efficiency between rated homes.  A home with a higher score will use more energy than a home with a lower score. The index starts at Zero and goes up.  The highest score I have personally completed was 384.  Most existing homes score between 95 and 150.

A HERS Rating can be completed for single family or multi-family homes. The limitation applies to buildings that are 3 stores or less. In the trade these are referred to as ‘Low Rise Residential buildings.

Energy Star is a Brand that is promoted by the Federal Government since 1992.  It is designed to designate the top 20% of a product line with the most energy efficient features built in.  Every product line has standards for energy use. Specific tests are required on the different products.

Refrigerators are a great example.  A 25 cubic foot refrigerator is only compared to similar size units. A 10 cubic foot unit designed for a smaller apartment is not compared to larger units. there are a large number of refrigerator classes available.

Some products do not have an Energy Star qualifying standard.  Examples here would include clothes dryers and ranges, ovens and cook tops.

Energy Star Homes use a set of mandatory requirements that must be followed and a HERS Rating that must be earned. The requirements are detailed, covering 7 pages of checklists. They require specific energy related items, for example, continuous insulation. They also require things such as flashing of windows and doors for durability. It makes little sense to build an energy efficiency home that would allow water to enter the wall and destroy the insulation.

A maximum HERS Index score  is set, based on the size and number of bedrooms of a home.

Commercial buildings also qualify for an Energy Star Rating. Existing building qualify by reducing energy usage. This process, like most Energy Star certifications, is voluntary and as a HERS Rater and Thermographer, I am qualified to assist with, or to complete.

New commercial buildings qualify for Energy Star, by design and verification of the actual design being present in the completed building.  I can help with this also. Since most of these buildings have architects and other professional engineers involved in the planning, my role is more in the verification process. In the commercial area this process is called Building Commissioning. I would work primarily with the Thermal Enclosure and some of the HVAC issues.

What is that I smell? Indoor Air Quality!

IAQ1Improvement of Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) is of interest to many of the people that are pursuing an Energy Audit.  Over the last 40 years, many of the worst outdoor air pollutants have been controlled, reduced or eliminated as a problem.  New understanding of air pollution, new technology and new approaches have all had roles in these improvements.

As the improvement has been happening outside, people have begun to take a stronger look at what is happening inside their homes. Again new understanding of how a home works, new technology, and new approaches to handing indoor air have a role in improving IAQ.

In building a new home, following the Indoor Air Plus specifications, part of the Energy Star program, provides for long term Indoor Air Quality basics.  Following many of these specifications gives each homeowner a guideline to apply to improvements in an existing home.  It is easier and less expensive to build a home with these features. It is also possible to incorporate many of them into an existing home.

The list and discussion below provide information to homeowners about those improvements that are cost effective to implement and can be done over time or immediately. These are all improvements that will improve or maintain the indoor air quality and at the same time will improve the durability of the home.

 

Radon ControlRadon

Radon is colorless, odorless gas that comes up from the soil. It occurs naturally. Some areas of the country have very little. Some areas have more. Radon Mitigation System. The test then came back at “No Radon”.

Air Infiltration

AirInfil

Moisture Control

Water

Pest Control

Pest

Heating and Air Conditioning System

  • Ducts are sealed in all accessible areas.
  • Pressure Balance Supply to each room and Return from each room. Use Jump or transfer ducts as needed to maintain balance.
  • Install a whole house type ventilation system to meet ASHRAE 62.2.2010 specifications.
  •  Spot exhaust fans in bathrooms, kitchen, laundry, dryer, central vacuum systems are exhausted to the outside, not into the area between floors or the attic. Use the specifications of ASHRAE 62.2.2010 here as well.
  • Adjust HVAC to maximize dehumidification in the summer.
  • Do not run HVAC blower on ‘On’ or circulate; use the Auto setting.

Combustion Pollutant Sources

  • Change furnace to sealed combustion unit
  • Vent Fireplaces outside and have them checked to verify they meet emission standards.
  • Install a Carbon Monoxide Alarm in each sleeping zone and in any room with a standard gas hot water heater or gas range.
  • Consider changing conventional atmospherically drafted hot water heater to electric or Tankless Demand with sealed combustion.

The Attached Garage

  • Air seal all common walls and ceilings in the garage. Maintain the air barrier by repairing holes, cracks in the drywall.
  • Install an automatic door closer on any doors into the home, from the garage.  A spring loaded hinge will meet this item. Do not prop the door to the garage open or use this opening to bring fresh air into the home during spring or fall.
  • Consider installing a ventilation fan to the outside, rated at 70 cfm in continuous use. Provide make up air source with this improvement.

Materials used in any Future Remodels

  • Certified low-formaldehyde pressed wood materials (plywood, OSB, MDF, cabinetry.
  • Certified low-VAC or no-VOC interior paints and finishes used.
  • Carpet, adhesives, and cushion quality for CRI Green Label Plus or Green Label testing Program

Air Filtration

The last step in any Indoor Air Quality program is filtering the air.

Most people start with this step.  It is really the last step.  If you keep stuff from getting in, you don’t need to filter it out.  Somewhat like closing the barn door after the cow is gone.

Filters

Duct Cleaning Services

Due to the varied construction of heating and air ducts, the heavily advertised duct cleaning service presents unique problems. The use of panned body cavities within walls and floors means ducts are not smooth inside. Flex Duct with increased friction losses, possible tight bends and up and down runs also creates issues.  The EPA advice is without compelling visual evidence of an extreme problem, duct cleaning is not advised. You may view the entire EPA Web Page http://epa.gov/iaq/pubs/airduct.html

Where Do I Start?

Get some Professional Advice.  This should involve a complete review of your home. It can be done by someone that is selling a service.  The assessment can be done by someone that doesn’t not have a financial interest in a product or service that may be recommended after the assessment. It is your home, it is your choice!

The Energy Guy can do this assessment. It can be done stand alone, or with a comprehensive Home Energy Audit.  Call or e-mail for more information.