In Part 1a, we have looked at how your builder builds your home to keep water from the outside from damaging your home. He used materials to shed the water and he lapped them over each other, from the roof peak and the shingles all the way down to the ground. And then directed the water away from the house, using gutters and sloping the landscape away from the house. Easy, quick and it looks nice.
In Part 1b, we looked at how your builder builds your home on the inside to keep water where you want it, and provide easy clean up when it does get out of the pipes, the sink, tub or shower.
You can think of this as bulk water. You can see it, this is water that is usually measured in quarts or gallons, and it is responsible for 50 – 60 % of the water damage that occurs over time. The exact percentage depends on the source doing the figuring. So why is there a Part 1c? There is one remaining source of moisture in most homes. Water Vapor. Hard to see it, hard to measure it. The damage water vapor causes is usually found to be very extensive.
If you have a roof leak, it usually ends up inside and you find it while it is relatively small. When it is fixed the damage is limited and fairly easy to fix. Leaks from plumbing and over flowing sinks and tubs, is usually caught very fast. The surface is easy to clean up and many times contains the water. Damage from these sources doesn’t really occur unless the water continues over time to get there. It stays wet and is not allowed to dry out.
Flood type events are not really of concern here. When they happen, the homeowner is aware, his insurance may cover repairs and there are lots of contractors that will do the work. Generally, they have little to do with how the house was built.
Water vapor is present in varying amounts in every home. What is the relative humidity in the home? 40% – 25% – 65%? That is water vapor in the air. We add to that from breathing, cooking, and hygiene activities, like showers and running hot water for various purposes.
How do we control this water vapor?
Spot ventilation. This may be as simple as opening a window next to the stove where the pasta is boiling, or the tea pot is ready to pour. It may be using an exhaust fan over the stove to actually remove the water vapor from cooking out of the house. Same in the shower.
When the heat and humidity arrive around here, in the summer, it is air-conditioning season. Most air conditioners will lower the temperature of the air and remove some of the humidity at the same time. Somedays they do a great job, somedays the ac unit really has to work and it. Occasionally, you will find a unit that makes the room fairly cold, and you just feel clammy. Like you just walked in from 100° outside and you are wet all over. The trouble is, it doesn’t go away. You keep feeling cold and clammy.
That is the first way that water vapor causes a problem with our homes, it makes us uncomfortable.
How does the water vapor move into the walls and attic to cause problems like the liquid or bulk water we looked at? It has two ways to move. Air Movement and Vapor Diffusion.
Vapor Diffusion involves moving a vapor, in this case water. It involves temperature and pressure. It also involves Math, lots of fancy math. I know some math teachers that can run these numbers, and a couple of physicists here in Kansas. I’m sure the characters on TV’s ‘Big Bang Theory’ could run the numbers.
The good news is, we don’t have to run the numbers. If you take a room in your home with the humidity at 40% and 70° – you will find less than a gallon of actual water. By the time all the numbers are done, the answer is: Yes – Vapor Diffusion put some of that water vapor into the wall. And we can test that the 7% moisture content of the drywall, studs and other parts of the wall, is now 7.5 or 8%. Not much change. If you have read much on this blog, you know I lower my blood pressure by turning wood, into bowls. Anything less than 12% moisture content in wood is considered dry.
If the builder bought kiln dried lumber, and kept the rain off it, while the house was built, the wood is probably 8 – 9 % moisture content when the home is finished. Kiln dried lumber is typically 6 – 8 %. Moving from an enclosed type shed to the job site, wood will pick up a little moisture.
What about air movement and water vapor? That is the one to take care of. Uncontrolled air movement takes the water vapor right along with it. When that vapor comes in contact with a surface that is below the current dew point, it will condense and the liquid wets the material. We know that energy savings is easy to obtain with air sealing. So fixing the air leaks is good for stopping the water vapor from making our house wet also. How much? This graphic from the guys at Building Science Corporation shows how much.
This post is part of a series of posts on A Healthy Home.