Category Archives: New Homes

Follow Up Thought for Friday’s Summer Cooling Tips.

DeeDee and I started outside. The info from the back deck did not make the cut and I let it slide when i did the blog summary of her story.  So …

Shade Works

This is an Infrared image on one of my first new homes.  The 2 foot cantilever bay clearly shows the effect of the shade. There is a 20° F difference in the temperature between shaded and unshaded areas of the wall. The high temperatures on the side of the house are in the area of 128° F.  It is 97° F when I took this one.

Shade works.  Building a new home with a south facing set of large windows. It is worth your money to have a deck with a roof, or pergola over it. If you have an existing home, the Pergola is a great idea.

Concepts like this have been recommending in my Home Energy Audits.

Quality Installation and Maintenance of HVAC Equipment

The news this month has multiple stories about Heating and Air Companies being very busy with units not cooling or not cooling enough.Screen Shot 2016-06-24 at 8.49.56 AM Driving around town, I see most of these contractors have a sign out front looking for help. The wait time is up to two weeks.  In the 7 homes I’ve been in this week.  One had no working AC, one home was on it’s last legs, and two other homeowners were very concerned. For the 1st time in 7 years, I’m getting calls from my website asking if I can fix their AC unit.

This morning I found a report on HVAC Problems, Problem Identification and Repair.  I have scanned this 27 page report and these are the things that jumped out.

Background:  California has some of the toughest energy requirements for buildings, both new and remodeling of existing buildings. These is a direct result of the problems they had 15 years ago, with not enough electricity.  They resulted to black outs, (Utilitys were allowed to shut off electricity to various geographic areas).  and brown outs, (Utilities were allowed to provide only part of the electricity needed to a geographic area).  Both are not good.

These energy codes are generally referred to as Title 24.  A large part of the work in California the last few years has been testing and measuring how well the requirements are being met.  This report is just one small piece of that process.

Title 24 refers to the problems, their identification and repair as “Fault Detection and Diagnosis” or “FDD”

Screen Shot 2016-06-24 at 8.51.18 AM

The Report was working on the answers to these questions

  • Is FDD worth the investment, and what is the savings potential?
  • How effective are available FDD methods and what do they cost to implement?
  • What training is needed for effective FDD and is it being provided?
  • Are codes and standards working?
  • What are the major gaps and how can they be addressed?

This particular session and reporting was limited to:

 

  • System Types–new and existing residential only
    • Air conditioners
    • Heat pumps
    • Furnaces and air handlers
  • Fault Types
    • Low airflow
    • Refrigerant system charge, restrictions, and contaminants
    • Mechanical and electrical faults and faulty installation
  • Repair vs. Replacement Issues
    • Cost-effectiveness of FDD
    • Replacement refrigerants for R-22
  • Human Factors
    • Training and quality of maintenance
    • Homeowner knowledge and expectations.

The reporting included tests applied with standard AHRI methods. The tests were designed to determine the impacts on efficiency and capacity of a variety of conditions, including:

  • Airflow of 250 cfm/ton reduced energy efficiency ratio (EER) by 12% and has the potential to produce a false overcharge diagnostic due to freezing of the coil (the asterisk denotes an unofficial EER)
  • Liquid line restrictions (e.g. due to clogged filter-dryer or metering devices) reduced EER by 30% to 36% for non-TXV and TXV systems respectively
  • Only 0.3% Nitrogen in the refrigerant reduced the EER  by 18% with no TXV and 12% for the TXV-equipped system

Discussion pointed out that California Title 24 charge verification methods, which only measure superheat (for non-TXV) and sub-cooling (for TXV) systems, and ACCA Standard 4, for which only 3% of the procedures are related to energy performance. Also covered were  how improperly maintained vacuum pumps, test instrument error, and poor service practices such as use of rules of thumb contribute to the introduction of non-condensables, improper charge, and other faults.

John Proctor, PE presented a case for making improvements to California’s Title 24 standards, John worked with a team to inspect a large number of recently built homes to identify HVAC installation and performance issues. He began his presentation by defining an “incremental effectiveness ratio” that divides benefits of maintenance by the incremental cost to diagnose, repair, and ensure quality, which is fundamental to the question of the value of HVAC service. He proceeded to show a series of graphs from his experience and other studies that illustrate the deviations from the ideal for airflow, charge, duct leakage and efficiency, and non-condensables, as well as the incidence of occurrence of these defects.

For example, his graphs show:

  • 50% reduction in airflow reduces EER by 25%.
  • A refrigerant charge that is 70% of the recommended charge reduces EER by about 55%.
  • Leaving Nitrogen in the line set and coil at 20 psig before charging with refrigerant reduces the sensible EER by about 45%.
  • From his 2003 survey, more than 60% of the houses checked failed on refrigerant charge, airflow, and duct leakage, and more than 95% failed overall.

Many of these issues result from a lack of training and a lack of follow up by supervisors.

They had some specific things that could be done by builders, HVAC Contractors and home owners to ensure these items do not get missed.

I will read the report in more detail and have further comments.

You may read the entire report.

Medical Study Shows Green Homes Decrease Illness

One of the benefits of buying and living in a green home has always been health related. Energy Efficient and sustainable builders have always taken care to keep water out and to seal up air leaks.  One of the effects is to lower your energy bills. Another is to improve the health of those living in the home.

No Flashing Window

The picture above is a window that was not flashed properly. Water was going into the wall. When you have water and wood together, you get mold.  Many new homes do not have this feature. Remember, there is no legal requirement to install insulation or other healthy features in a home in Wichita or Sedgwick County.

Now, US News and World Report’s Health Day column, written by Amy Norton covers a study in Boston.  She covered the research report in the American Journal of Public Health.

“Researchers found that children living in Boston’s newer, greener public housing had fewer asthma attacks, hospital visits and missed school days, compared with their peers in standard public housing. 

Adults, meanwhile, were less likely to report symptoms consistent with a condition called “sick building syndrome” — which include dizziness, headaches, nausea and eye irritation.”

Buying a home that has green features, such as Water Management Details, Air Sealing, and a Planned Fresh Air system is a big part of the Green Home that creates these benefits. You can find green homes, featuring these benefits, in and around Wichita. Some builder’s choose to have their homes certified to a Voluntary Standard such as Energy Star or Zero Energy Ready or or NAHB Green, or Eco Select.  A certified homes have these features verified by someone other than the builder.

So as the New Home market is growing in the Wichita Area, ask your builder about these features.  Don’t accept the answer that it is not needed, or this is what everyone else does. This is about the health of your family.

Read the entire article

 

And, Ladies and Gentlemen, Here Comes The Sales Pitch ….

thermal metic headerSince 2007,  all of the large insulation manufacturers and trade associations have been funding research of the Thermal Metric Project.  This project was conducted by Building Science Corporation, a respected source of independence and factually based information about energy efficiency in homes and other buildings.Batt side

The project testing Spray Foam, Fiberglass, rigid foam and cellulose. It studied batts and blown in fiberglass. You can find their final report, issued in June, 2015 on their website.  There are a lot of detailed measurements, graphs and data in the report. It is a good report that will serve well over the years.  The headlines are now beginning to show up in various social media. These are taken from the Executive Summary of the Report. When you see these in literature or social media of either insulation manufacturers trade associations, or contractors —  take the presentation with a couple of grains of salt.

So which ones will be spun for public consumption and what can one do to avoid a sales pitch. Let’s look at the main conclusions.

  • When walls are constructed with the same installed R-value in the stud space, and are air sealed, both inside and outside (i.e. there is effectively zero air leakage through the assembly), they exhibit essentially the same thermal performance regardless of the type of insulation materials used.
  • All of the tested wall assemblies were subject to thermal bridging regardless of the they of insulation material used in the stud space. Thermal bridging through the framing resulted in roughly 15% decrease in thermal performance.

There are seven more bullet points in the Executive Summary that get more technical then most builders and almost all home buyers want to know. For those that do, it is another blog post or reading the report themselves.tweet1

Here is the Tweet that I saw this morning and thought it was worth a Blog Post.

Notice the comparison is Cost.  Does this cost include the cost of proper installation and air sealing?  I have no idea. Following the links back to the website, I did find a cost of $4,000 for the batt type insulation.  Nothing about the size of the home or other details to make a reasonable comparison.

There is also no indication that batts are rarely installed according to manufacturer’s directions.  In the picture at the beginning, the batt is not installed according to the manufacturer’s instructions. In this area Dry Wall installers, will not warranty their workmanship if batts are installed according to manufacturer’s directions.

15aI included the Project’s second bullet point about Thermal Bridging.  Too many times, we hear references to an R-13 wall or R-19 wall.  This only refers to the space between the studs, not the wall.  Thermal Bridging represents the decreased value of insulation because there is wood in the wall.  Wood is R-1 per inch.  So each stud is 1 1/2 inches of R3.5 in a 2×4 wall.  This is the 15% decrease in performance.

The 15 percent also uses the recommendations from NAHB from their 1977 research on Optimum Value Framing. The National Association of Home Builders conducted this research to find ways to remove expensive wood studs almost 40 years ago.  Wood Studs are more expensive now, and still increasing. This IR image shows batts not installed according to manufacturer’s instructions (The Dark Blue Areas). It also shows the wood framing as a thermal bypass, mostly green with some blue on the top plates.

In the end, for the home buyer, a way to sort through all the sales pitch exists. For new homes of half of the new construction in 2013 was verified independently by a HERS Rater.  I do this in the Wichita metro area for builders and new home buyers.

Previous Blogs of Interest:

Installing Fiberglass Batts

Insulation in Your Walls

 

 

This simple table will keep your home cool

Table 1 Jean-Sébastien Lagrange and Raphaël Ménard with their Zero Energy Furniture Climatic Table.

Consisting simply of a surface and legs, the table is one piece of furniture that has remained largely the same for thousands of years. But now, a French design duo has come up with a way to turn the humble table into a means of climate control that doesn’t use any electricity. Paris-based industrial designer Jean-Sébastien Lagrange teamed up with French engineer Raphaël Ménard to create the Zero Energy Furniture table, also known as the ZEF Climatic Table. The ZEF table looks like any other with a sleek design of a solid plank oak top and angled legs — but it could hold the secret to cutting energy costs by as much as 60%.

 

Table 2A close up of the ZEF table, which could cut energy needs by as much as 60%.

 

“We wanted to see if it was possible to address climate and energy issues on a furniture scale,” Lagrange told WIRED.

Beneath the oak table are a series of phase-changing materials (PCMs) placed between the wood and anodized aluminium bottom. The materials soften when the surrounding room reaches around 71 degrees, absorbing the excess heat, and then harden once the temperature dips back below 71 degrees, releasing the trapped heat with the help of the aluminium and causing a noticeable change in the room’s temperature.

Table SpongeThat means the table is essentially working like a “thermal sponge,” as Lagrange and Ménard put it, sucking up excess heat and then releasing it once the room becomes cool enough.

According to the inventors, the table has the potential to reduce heating needs by as much as 60% and cooling demands by as much as 30%, which could save a lot of money as well as energy.

It’s a feat of engineering that makes the most sense in homes that don’t have climate control.

In climates where the temperature can drastically swing from hot to cold in short spans of time, the ZEF Climatic Table is most useful. For example, if a room heats up on a sunny day and then the temperature drops at night, the ZEF table would make the climate in that room more consistent.

The ZEF table works best in rooms that undergo significant temperature changes frequently.

The Full Article on Business Insider Australia


 

This article is reprinted in part from the above digital source. It was originally from Wired and was brought to my attention by ASHRAE. Phase Change Materials have many applications in heating and cooling. One phase change material everyone uses is water.  At 32°F it changes from solid to liquid or liquid to solid. Of interest to energy efficiency are materials that act in this way around 70°F.

‘Show Your Work’ Isn’t Just for Math Class Anymore

percent greenMy wife is a Math Teacher.  She always likes student’s papers that ‘show your work’! This NAHB Report says ‘Show Your Work’ also applies to building and selling Energy Efficient Homes.

An Early Look at Energy Efficiency and Contributory Value examined sales of homes in the greater Denver metropolitan area between January 2012 and April 2014 to determine the impact that energy efficiency has on the home buying process.

Ultimately, the authors concluded, “There is a current lack of researchable and quantifiable data … Until the data is consistently available and easy to find, it is likely that the residential appraiser’s ability to develop a credible opinion of value will be limited.

Among the observations/findings in the study:

  • The percentage of home sale listings citing “energy” increased in both local multiple listing services between 2006 and 2013, apparently indicating that such features are increasingly appealing to prospective buyers.
  • DadBabyESIn a very limited survey the authors conducted of home owners who purchased Energy Star-qualified homes, 96% indicated that if they were purchasing a home in the future, they would like the home to have an energy-efficiency rating so that they could compare it to other homes.
  • According to the authors: “Appraisers need third-party certified and verified energy-efficiency documentation.” Determining a home’s energy efficiency is “beyond the normal scope of work,” knowledge and experience of an appraiser.
  • Although the survey was not intended to estimate property values based on the presence of energy-efficient elements, in most of the case studies, the presence of energy-efficiency features added measurably to the value of the home. Several of the homes featured in the case studies were certified to the ICC 700 National Green Building Standard.
  • It was difficult, and sometimes impossible, for the study’s authors to separate the value of energy efficiency measures from other green features.

NAHB actively supports efforts to educate appraisal and realty professionals about the intrinsic value of home performance, and how certifications like the ICC 700 National Green Building Standard can help non-building professionals and their customers identify high performance homes and appreciate their benefits.

Full Report

Buying an Energy Efficient Home

HomePOHThe Annual Spring Parade of Homes is on the last week in the Wichita Metro Area.  There are some great homes out there. Lots of amenities to consider. Everyone has their own lifestyle and looks for a floor plan to fit. They all have their sense of taste and can look at the colors, finishes and visual effects.

POH_S15Every builder says they build an energy efficient home. Energy Efficiency is built in behind the walls.  It is usually not seen.  Energy Efficiency is about people and how they install the items that create the efficiency.  The specific items are less important then the way they are installed. Generally, the manufacturers install instructions must be followed.

Wichita – Sedgwick County has not adopted any code provisions for energy efficiency in new homes.  It may be legal to build a home with no insulation, but is that a wise decision? No one thinks so.  So how much is enough and is it installed correctly?  In this area we are reliant on the free enterprise approach energy efficiency in new homes.

Phoenix, AZ has an energy code, yet the free enterprise market based system has upped the game for buyers.  Here is a recent article in the Phoenix Newspaper about how a home buyer can see what is behind the walls.

Arizona-Republic-Features-of-ENERGY-STAR-HERS

Indoor Air Quality – Guideline Revision Public Comments Requested

imagesATLANTA – Public input is being sought into a proposed revision of ASHRAE’s residential indoor air quality guideline.

ASHRAE Guideline 24-2008, Ventilation and Indoor Air Quality in Low-Rise Residential Buildings, is the companion guideline to ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 62.2-2007, Ventilation and Acceptable Indoor Air Quality in Low-Rise Residential Buildings.  Guideline 24 provides information on achieving good IAQ that goes beyond the requirements contained in Standard 62.2 by providing explanatory and educational material not included in the code-intended standard.

Read Entire Article

 

New Efficiency Standards for Hot Water Heaters

The National Association of Home Builders has condensed the DOE page on the new Efficiency Standards for Hot Water Heaters. The good news is if you buy the unit, you can install it, until existing stocks are used up. There are also some alternatives in specifying and installation you can consider.

Elec DHWNew residential water heater energy-efficiency standards that go into effect April 16 will require changes to the installation of many residential water heaters. Most water heaters with a capacity of 55 gallons or less will require more installation space, and those larger than 55 gallons in capacity will see additional, more significant changes. However, products manufactured before April 16 can still be bought and installed after the changeover date.

These new efficiency standards will require much higher Energy Factor (EF) ratings for larger water heaters, making a huge impact, especially on how these types of water heaters are manufactured, distributed, installed and/or vented.

PV DHWThe more common-sized water heaters of 55 gallons or less will likely be larger by roughly 2 inches in height and diameter to account for the additional insulation needed to meet the new standard. This may require builders to account for the increased size in their design.

It is expected that replacement water heaters installed in closets will present the biggest problems: They may require installing an applicance with reduced water capacity, selecting a much taller tank of the same diameter or a switching to a tankless water heater if space does not allow for a simple change-out.

As more information is available from manufacturers and the federal Department of Energy, NAHB will update this page.  Continue Reading

Be Proactive for a Green Appraisal

greenlightbulbWhen it comes to getting an accurate appraisal for a high-performance home, it’s easier and more practical to take the right steps up front than to try to get a low appraisal revised after the fact.

Appraisal expert Sandra Adromatis, a featured speaker at the High Performance Building Zone during the recent International Builders’ Show, offered advice for securing an accurate appraisal of a high-performance home.

First and most important is documentation, especially of features behind the walls and other items that aren’t immediately obvious.

A good place to start is by taking a close look at the Appraisal Institute’s Residential Green and Energy Efficient Addendum. This is particularly important if the home is built to a nationally recognized program like the ICC-700 National Green Building Standard or includes additional high-performance features that should be documented within the appraisal.

This article appeared on the NAHB Blog.

For the complete article

Ms. Adomatis also presented at the RESNET Conference after the IBS Show. I furnish the Energy portion of the AI Energy Efficient and Green Addendum for every new home rating I do for a builder.  If you would like to see one or see how it would help your building plans, give me a call.